Tunable digital equalizers are used to adjust gains at specific frequencies whiles maintaining the gains at all other frequencies. First order equalizers can be used to real time signal enhancement procedures to improve speech quality.

Consider a first order analog transfer function in Laplace domain:

H(s) = \frac{s + \alpha \beta}{s + \alpha} = \frac{s}{s + \alpha} + \beta \frac{\alpha}{s + \alpha}

The transfer function can be rewritten as:

H(s) = \frac{1}{2} (1+\gamma(s)) + \frac{\beta}{2} (1-\gamma(s))

where \gamma(s) = \frac{s-\alpha}{s + \alpha}. Then, using the bi-linear transformation of s = \frac{2}{T} \frac{z-1}{z+1}, the realized digital filter becomes:

H(z) = \frac{1}{2} (1+\gamma(z)) + \frac{\beta}{2} (1-\gamma(z))

\gamma(z) = - \frac{z^{-1} -\hat{\alpha}}{1-\hat{\alpha} z^{-1}}

where \hat{\alpha} = \frac{\frac{2}{T}-\alpha}{\frac{2}{T}+\alpha} where T is the integration step of the trapezoid rule. Figure 1 below illustrates the gains at different frequencies using \alpha = 0.995 on the left and the gains at different frequencies using \beta = 0.2 on the right.


 first order equalizer low frequency gain

Figure 1: Low frequency gain adjusted by varying \beta with \alpha = 0.995 on the left and varying \alpha with \beta = 0.2 on the right


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