ULA Signal To Noise Plus Interference Ratio Improvements With Delay and Sum Beamformer. The rule of thumb for delay and sum beamformers is that a doubling of the number of microphones leads to a $3dB$ gain. This holds $iff$ there is no interfering signal which is correlated across all microphones. We derive the expected signal to noise plus interference ratio (SNIR) gains for ULA microphones. Consider a far field source impinging N ULA microphones through an anechoic medium as shown in Figure 1: Figure 1: N ULA microphones

Suppose the signal at each microphone $i \in \{1, \cdots, N\}$ is given as: $x_i(w) = s(w) e^{\left(-jw \frac{(i-1) d}{c} \sin{\theta} \right)} + v(w) e^{\left(-jw \frac{(i-1) d}{c} \sin{\beta} \right)} + n_i(w)$

where $s(w)$ is the desired speech signal, $\theta$ is the direction of arrival (DOA) of the speech signal with respect to the normal to the axis joining all the microphones, $v(w)$ is the directional interfering signal, $\beta$ is the DOA of the interfering signal and $n_i(w)$ is zero mean i.i.d noise with variance $\sigma_n^2$.

The input SNIR per frequency bin $w$, denoted $iSNIR(w)$ is given as: $iSNIR = \frac{|s(w)|^2}{|v(w)|^2 + \sigma_n^2 }$

After the delay and sum beamformer, the output becomes: $x(w) = s(w) + v(w) \frac{1}{N} \frac{\sin{\left(w N \frac{d}{2c}( \sin{\theta} - \sin{\beta})\right)}}{\sin{\left(w \frac{d}{2c}( \sin{\theta} - \sin{\beta})\right)}} e^{\left(jw \frac{N-1}{2} \frac{d}{c}( \sin{\theta} - \sin{\beta}) \right)}+ \frac{1}{N} \sum\limits_{n=0}^{N-1} n_{i+1} (w) e^{\left(jw n \frac{d}{c}\sin{\theta} \right)}$

The output SNIR per frequency bin $w$, denoted $oSNIR(w)$ is given as $oSNIR = \frac{|s(w)|^2}{\frac{\left |v(w) \right|^2}{N^2} \left| \frac{1}{N} \frac{\sin{\left(w N \frac{d}{2c}( \sin{\theta} - \sin{\beta})\right)}}{\sin{\left(w \frac{d}{2c}( \sin{\theta} - \sin{\beta})\right)}}\right| + \frac{1}{N} \sigma_n^2}$

The SNR improvement, SNIRI then becomes: $SNRI = \frac{oSNR}{iSNR} = \frac{N^2 (\alpha(w) +1)}{\alpha(w) \left |\frac{\sin{\left(w N \frac{d}{2c}( \sin{\theta} - \sin{\beta})\right)}}{\sin{\left(w \frac{d}{2c}( \sin{\theta} - \sin{\beta})\right)}} \right|^2 + N}$

where $\alpha(w) = \frac{|v(w)|^2}{\sigma_n^2}$.

A sample expected SNIRI at a frequency of $4kHz$ is shown in Figure 2 below $d = 50mm$ using $4$ microphones for $\alpha =0$ and $\alpha = 100$ or 20dB. It should be noted that $\alpha =0$ reduces to conventional N fold improvement as shown on the plot. The desired direction is $90^{\circ}$. Figure 2: SNRI (dB) for different DOA(degrees) and $latx d$

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